2018上半年二笔题目试做

Ernest
Ernest

发布于2019-11-19 09:21来源:原创 15 评论 15 点赞

二笔定时模拟试做。

Passage 1

 

Millions of tourists come here every year to visit the ancient ruins of Angkor Wat, an influx that has helped transform what once resembled a small, laid-back village into a thriving and cosmopolitan town with thumping nightlife and more than 10,000 hotel rooms.

每年都有数以百万计的游客参观安科沃古遗址。游客的大量涌入,使得该休闲村庄发展成为一座都市般的繁荣城镇。该城拥有大型夜行动物,以及一万余间酒店客房。

 

But the explosion of the tourism industry here has also done something less predictable. Siem Reap, which had no universities a decade ago, is now Cambodia’s second-largest hub for higher education, after the capital, Phnom Penh. The sons and daughters of impoverished rice farmers flock here to work as tour guides, receptionists, bartenders and waitresses.

然而该镇旅游业的兴旺也带来了一些未曾预见的后果。锡安母·雷普目前是柬埔寨境内仅次于首都金边的第二大高等教育中心,而十年前这里连一座大学也没有。贫困地区的稻农子女纷纷涌入务工,做起了导游、接待员、酒吧侍女和餐馆女服务员等工作。

 

When their shifts are over, they study finance, English and accounting.“ The establishment of five private universities here is helping to transform the work force in this part of Cambodia.Employers say that English proficiency is rising and that workers who attend universities stand out for their ability to express themselves and make decisions.

离乡进城后,他们开始学习金融、英语和会计。该城设立的五所私立高校,正在促进柬埔寨劳动力的转变。雇主称工人的英语水平正逐步提升,工人中的大学学生群体也在表达和决策能力方面脱颖而出。

 

A generation of students who would otherwise have had little hope to study beyond high school are enduring grueling schedules to get a degree and pursue their dreams.Khim Borin, a 26-year-old tour guide by day and law student by night, says he wants to become a lawyer. But he sometimes has trouble staying awake in class during the high tourist season, when he spends hours scaling vertiginous temple steps and baking in the tropical sun. There was no master help plan work and life. It was driven largely by supply and demand: universities opened to cater to the dreams of Cambodia’s youth.

然而,那些基本无缘高等教育的学生却正为了拿到学位、实现梦想而饱受课程的折磨。26岁的吉姆·博林有个律师梦,他白天做导游,晚上还得修习法律课程。但旅游高峰期来临的时候,他每天都得花几个小时在庙宇间来回穿梭,这令他头晕目眩;此外他还得在热带地区的烈日下暴晒数个小时。这导致他晚上上课的时候很难保持清醒。没有教导主任帮他计划工作和生活。这种现象主要是由供求关系驱动的:开设这些大学,是为了帮助柬埔寨的青年一代圆梦。

 

 

After graduation, students who work and study at the same time often have an edge over fresh graduates who have never worked before, for whom starting a career can be difficult, Ms. Chan and others say. University students are “more communicative,” she said. “If they don’t like something, they speak out.” Ms. Chan and others say they are lucky that Angkor’s temples have proved so popular with tourists. If it were not for the sandstone structures nestled in the jungles, Siem Reap would probably have remained a backwater. Last year, 3.3 million tourists visited Siem Reap, half of them foreigners, according to the Cambodian Ministry of Tourism.

陈女士等人说,相比于从未工作过的大学毕业生,半工半读的毕业生毕业后往往更具优势:工作对前者来说可能起步会很困难。她还补充道:“大学生更加擅长交际。如果他们不喜欢某样东西,他们会直接说出来。”根据陈女士等人所说,安科城的庙宇很受游客欢迎,这对大学生来说是件好事。若不是那些坐落在丛林中的沙石建筑,锡安母·雷普很可能还是无人问津的荒山野岭。柬埔寨旅游部的数据显示,去年该城游客人数达到三百三十万人,其中有一半是外国游客。

 

Passage 2

 

At one of the better colleges in India's capital, there is just one large room for 140 faculty members to sit and have a cup of tea or grade papers. "If even half show up, there aren't enough chairs," said Amin, a history professor there. "There is no other place to work. In this situation, how do you expect teachers to work?"

在印度首都的某些名牌大学,140名教职员工挤在一间大房间里静坐喝茶、批改试卷。历史教授阿米称:“要是有一半教工同时来工作,椅子就不够用了。可我们没别的地方能工作了。房间这么挤,这叫我们做老师的怎么工作?”

 

 

The lack of amenities for faculty members is not the only issue. After 30 years at Mary College, which is one of dozens administered by the University of Delhi, Ms. Amin makes the equivalent of $22,000 a year - less than half of what some of her better students will make in their first jobs. New opportunities offer not just more money for graduates but also mobility and flexibility, which are virtually unheard of for faculty at most of India's colleges and universities.

除了基础设施的不完善,教职员工还需面临其他问题。阿米女士在德里大学管辖下的玛丽学院任教三十年,但她的年薪只有两万两千美元,还不及她一些优秀学生首次工作时工资的一半。新的机会不仅让毕业生有更多的钱可赚,还为他们提功了更多的流动和选择机会,而这些是印度大部分高校的教职员工想都不敢想的。

 

All this means that India is facing a severe shortage of faculty members. But it is not just low pay and lack of facilities that are being blamed. According to a government report published last year, a massive expansion in higher education combined with a poor supply of PhD's, delays in recruitment and the lack of incentives to attract and nurture talent have led to a situation in which 40 percent of existing faculty positions remain vacant. The report's authors, mostly academics, found that if the shortfall is calculated using the class size recommended by the government, this figure jumps to 54 percent.

这意味着印度正面临着严峻的教员匮乏问题。然而,需要被批评的还不止薪资过低和设施缺乏。印度政府去年的一项报告显示,虽然高等教育在蓬勃发展,但博士人数仍然不足,招聘工作进展迟缓,吸纳人才、培养人才缺乏动力,这导致目前有百分之四十的教员职位仍然空缺。报告的作者(大部分是学术界的学者)发现,如果采用政府推荐的班级规模来计算,空缺数字将猛增至百分之五十四。

 

 

Experts say this is the clearest sign that India will fail to meet the goal set by the education minister, who has pledged to more than double the size of the country's higher education system by 2020. They say that while the ambition is laudable, the absence of a long-term strategy to develop faculty will ensure that India's education dream remains just that.

专家称,这很明显意味着印度无法达到教育部所设立的目标,后者曾保证该国的高等教育规模到2020年可以至少翻一番。他们还补充道,虽然理想丰满,但是扩大教员队伍缺乏长远的战略,印度的教育梦也不会有什么改观。

 

Mr. Ali of Indian institute of technology in Delhi, meanwhile, was more optimistic. He felt India could enroll as much as 25 percent of eligible students in colleges and universities - about twice the current figure - by the end of this decade. "Tangible changes are happening," he said. "The debate that has happened in the last few years has taken people out of their comfort zones. There is more consensus across the board that we need to scale quality education."

与此同时,德里印度科技所的阿里先生却显得更加乐观。他认为截止2020年底,印度的高校可以招收多达百分之二十五的适龄学子,而这个比例大概是目前的两倍。他说:“我们正在改变,这显而易见。近几年的争论正在驱使人们离开舒适区。我们需要扩大素质教育的规模,这恐怕是所有人的共识。”

 

Section 2: Chinese-English Translation (50 points)

Translate the following two passages into English.

 

Passage 1   19.19-19.52

 

2000多年前,亚欧大陆上勤劳勇敢的人民,探索出多条连接亚欧非几大文明的贸易和人文交流通路,后人将其统称为“丝绸之路”。千百年来,“和平合作、开放包容、互利共赢”的丝绸之路精神薪火相传,推进了人类文明进步,促进了沿线各国繁荣发展。进入21世纪,面对复苏乏力的全球经济形势,纷繁复杂的国际和地区局面,传承和弘扬丝绸之路精神更显重要。

Over 2,000 years ago, the diligent and valiant people living in Eurasian continent built several roads of trade and cultural exchange connecting major civilizations in Asia, Europe and Africa. Later, we name these road “the Silk Road” as a whole. The Silk Road spirit has been inherited and expanded over the consecutive thousands of years, contributed to the human civilization progress, and promoted the prosperity of countries along the Silk Road. Now faced with stagnant global economy and confusing international and regional situation in 21th century, it is more urgent and important to inherit and expand the Silk Road spirit.

 

“一带一路”建设是一项系统工程,要坚持共商、共建、共享原则,积极推进沿线国家发展战略的相互对接。“一带一路”致力于亚欧非大陆及附近海洋的互联互通,建立和加强沿线各国互联互通伙伴关系,构建全方位、多层次、复合型的互联互通网络,实现沿线各国多元、自主、平衡、可持续的发展。“一带一路”的互联互通项目将推动沿线各国发展战略的对接与耦合,发掘区域内市场的潜力,促进投资和消费,创造需求和就业,增进沿线各国人民的人文交流。

In the Belt and Road initiative as a systematical program, we should adhere to the principle of mutual deliberation, joint contribution and shared interests, and make a proactive step to promote the strategy integration among countries along the belt and the road. The Initiative aims to enhance communication and connectivity in Eurasian continent and its neighbour seas, as well as build and promote the partnership among countries along the belt and the road. We intent to establish an all-oriented, multileveled and comprehensive connection network, and pursue a plural, independent, balanced and sustainable development. This connection program is expected to improve the integration of development strategies of different countries along the belt and the road, open more new grounds for regional market development, attract more investment, attract more consumption, create more demands and jobs, and enhance the cultural exchanges among various peoples along the belt and the road.

 

Passage 2

 

2006年,中国一个三口之家的碳排放量平均为2.7吨。目前,这一数字已升至3.5吨。而在北京、上海、广州等大城市,每个家庭的平均碳排放量已接近10吨。碳汇(carbon sink)主要是指森林吸收并储存二氧化碳的能力。森林是陆地生态系统中最大的碳汇库。在降低大气中温室气体浓度、减缓全球气候变暖中具有十分重要的独特作用。

In 2006, the average carbon emission of a three-member Chinese family was 2.7 ton. Now, it has risen to 3.5 ton, and even close to 10 ton in metropolises like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and so on. The term “carbon sink” reflects the forest’s capacity of carbon absorption and storage. As the largest carbon sink in land ecosystem, forests have a dramatic and distinctive effect on controlling the greenhouse gas concentration and retarding global climate warming.

 

据统计数字,每人每年只要种3棵树,就可吸收个人当年排放的二氧化碳。目前,中国正在开展公众可参加的碳汇林项目,如将建立四川大熊猫基地的熊猫汇林项目等。作为碳排放量大户的一些企业也已行动起来,先后在全国十多个省区建碳汇林60多万公顷。中国将推广购买碳汇、种植碳汇林等行动,加快植树造林步伐,增加森林碳汇功能。

According to statistics, everyone can achieve a zero carbon emission if he or she plants three trees every year. Now China is carrying out a series of carbon sink forest programs that is accessible to everyone, such as one in panda base in Sichuan province to be built. Some enterprises with a high carbon emission have started responding to those programs and already planted carbon sink forests of over 600,000 hectares in more than ten provinces in China. China also intents to expand their campaigns of carbon sink buying and forest planting, so as to speed up the progress of forestation and increase forests’ potential of carbon sinking.


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相关标签:

  • 柬埔寨
  • 游客
  • 排放量
  • 印度
  • 大学

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