发布于2019-11-19 09:21来源：原创 15 评论 15 点赞
Millions of tourists come here every year to visit the ancient ruins of Angkor Wat, an influx that has helped transform what once resembled a small, laid-back village into a thriving and cosmopolitan town with thumping nightlife and more than 10,000 hotel rooms.
But the explosion of the tourism industry here has also done something less predictable. Siem Reap, which had no universities a decade ago, is now Cambodia’s second-largest hub for higher education, after the capital, Phnom Penh. The sons and daughters of impoverished rice farmers flock here to work as tour guides, receptionists, bartenders and waitresses.
When their shifts are over, they study finance, English and accounting.“ The establishment of five private universities here is helping to transform the work force in this part of Cambodia.Employers say that English proficiency is rising and that workers who attend universities stand out for their ability to express themselves and make decisions.
A generation of students who would otherwise have had little hope to study beyond high school are enduring grueling schedules to get a degree and pursue their dreams.Khim Borin, a 26-year-old tour guide by day and law student by night, says he wants to become a lawyer. But he sometimes has trouble staying awake in class during the high tourist season, when he spends hours scaling vertiginous temple steps and baking in the tropical sun. There was no master help plan work and life. It was driven largely by supply and demand: universities opened to cater to the dreams of Cambodia’s youth.
After graduation, students who work and study at the same time often have an edge over fresh graduates who have never worked before, for whom starting a career can be difficult, Ms. Chan and others say. University students are “more communicative,” she said. “If they don’t like something, they speak out.” Ms. Chan and others say they are lucky that Angkor’s temples have proved so popular with tourists. If it were not for the sandstone structures nestled in the jungles, Siem Reap would probably have remained a backwater. Last year, 3.3 million tourists visited Siem Reap, half of them foreigners, according to the Cambodian Ministry of Tourism.
At one of the better colleges in India's capital, there is just one large room for 140 faculty members to sit and have a cup of tea or grade papers. "If even half show up, there aren't enough chairs," said Amin, a history professor there. "There is no other place to work. In this situation, how do you expect teachers to work?"
The lack of amenities for faculty members is not the only issue. After 30 years at Mary College, which is one of dozens administered by the University of Delhi, Ms. Amin makes the equivalent of $22,000 a year - less than half of what some of her better students will make in their first jobs. New opportunities offer not just more money for graduates but also mobility and flexibility, which are virtually unheard of for faculty at most of India's colleges and universities.
All this means that India is facing a severe shortage of faculty members. But it is not just low pay and lack of facilities that are being blamed. According to a government report published last year, a massive expansion in higher education combined with a poor supply of PhD's, delays in recruitment and the lack of incentives to attract and nurture talent have led to a situation in which 40 percent of existing faculty positions remain vacant. The report's authors, mostly academics, found that if the shortfall is calculated using the class size recommended by the government, this figure jumps to 54 percent.
Experts say this is the clearest sign that India will fail to meet the goal set by the education minister, who has pledged to more than double the size of the country's higher education system by 2020. They say that while the ambition is laudable, the absence of a long-term strategy to develop faculty will ensure that India's education dream remains just that.
Mr. Ali of Indian institute of technology in Delhi, meanwhile, was more optimistic. He felt India could enroll as much as 25 percent of eligible students in colleges and universities - about twice the current figure - by the end of this decade. "Tangible changes are happening," he said. "The debate that has happened in the last few years has taken people out of their comfort zones. There is more consensus across the board that we need to scale quality education."
Section 2: Chinese-English Translation (50 points)
Translate the following two passages into English.
Passage 1 19.19-19.52
Over 2,000 years ago, the diligent and valiant people living in Eurasian continent built several roads of trade and cultural exchange connecting major civilizations in Asia, Europe and Africa. Later, we name these road “the Silk Road” as a whole. The Silk Road spirit has been inherited and expanded over the consecutive thousands of years, contributed to the human civilization progress, and promoted the prosperity of countries along the Silk Road. Now faced with stagnant global economy and confusing international and regional situation in 21th century, it is more urgent and important to inherit and expand the Silk Road spirit.
In the Belt and Road initiative as a systematical program, we should adhere to the principle of mutual deliberation, joint contribution and shared interests, and make a proactive step to promote the strategy integration among countries along the belt and the road. The Initiative aims to enhance communication and connectivity in Eurasian continent and its neighbour seas, as well as build and promote the partnership among countries along the belt and the road. We intent to establish an all-oriented, multileveled and comprehensive connection network, and pursue a plural, independent, balanced and sustainable development. This connection program is expected to improve the integration of development strategies of different countries along the belt and the road, open more new grounds for regional market development, attract more investment, attract more consumption, create more demands and jobs, and enhance the cultural exchanges among various peoples along the belt and the road.
In 2006, the average carbon emission of a three-member Chinese family was 2.7 ton. Now, it has risen to 3.5 ton, and even close to 10 ton in metropolises like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and so on. The term “carbon sink” reflects the forest’s capacity of carbon absorption and storage. As the largest carbon sink in land ecosystem, forests have a dramatic and distinctive effect on controlling the greenhouse gas concentration and retarding global climate warming.
According to statistics, everyone can achieve a zero carbon emission if he or she plants three trees every year. Now China is carrying out a series of carbon sink forest programs that is accessible to everyone, such as one in panda base in Sichuan province to be built. Some enterprises with a high carbon emission have started responding to those programs and already planted carbon sink forests of over 600,000 hectares in more than ten provinces in China. China also intents to expand their campaigns of carbon sink buying and forest planting, so as to speed up the progress of forestation and increase forests’ potential of carbon sinking.