发布于2020-08-04 10:04来源：原创 7 评论 12 点赞
Why Merkel dreams in black and white?
In black and white: 白纸黑字，以书面的形式
Who is Angela Merkel?
German Chancellor Angela Merkel continues her reign as the most powerful woman on the planet for 10 years running. Why? She clinched a third four-year term of Europe's most vibrant economy in December 2014, making her the longest-serving elected EU head of state. She fought off a national recession during the global economic crisis with stimulus packages and government subsidies for companies that cut hours for workers, and she is in the thick of trying to help Greece revive its economy.
Even when she suddenly opened Germany’s borders to more than one million people last summer, she phrased this quixotic act in pragmatic language: “Wir schaffen das,” “We can do this.” Germany’s centre has largely held since, despite big advances for the anti-immigrant Alternative für Deutschland in last Sunday’s regional elections. Even amid the migrant crisis, most mainstream German politicians have remained boring pragmatists. Their aim: very slowly improve most people’s lives a little, while averting disaster.
Quixotic act means impragmatic act.
Don Quixote：a paradox. He hankers for a new system and life while utilizing out-of-date chivalry； he looks forward to getting approved while keeps sneering and satirising at others；he wants to change the society by himself while showing impotence in face of many unfairness.
That distinguishes Germany from other large countries. In the US, France and Russia, politics is couched in the language of dreams, greatness, heroes and utopia. There are pragmatic political cultures and utopian ones, and, oddly, it’s the pragmatists who get closer to utopia.
be couched in
It is... that... 强调句型,强调it is 和that 中间的人事物，很奇怪的是务实者才是最接近乌托邦的人，可这两类人明明是截然相反的。
Utopian politicians raise high expectations that they can only disappoint. Every American president campaigns as a great leader who will restore the American dream but then governs in prose. Pretty soon people start complaining that he hasn’t delivered the American dream, but of course he hasn’t: by definition, dreams are not reality.
Mario Cuomo Quote: “You campaign in poetry. You govern in prose.”
That means if the candidates campaign in poetry instead of good hard specifics, and win, they may wind up governing in vain.
Utopians rarely improve people’s lives a little. That’s partly because they are guided by hallowed old documents rather than by modern best practice. A daft old document such as the Communist Manifesto is particularly damaging but even a wise one such as the American constitution often misleads. For instance, the main reason the US has more than 30,000 gun deaths a year is the second amendment, adopted in 1791.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.
for example 和 for instance的区别很小。即使外国人也很难说清楚区别，通常看个人的喜好。但是在读书和日常交流的时候，会发现 for instance更加书面话和学究话。在严谨的学术上用的更多些。
（2）such as一般用来列举同类人或物中的几个例子，插在被列举的例子和前面的名词之间，as后没有逗号。在使用such as时应注意后面列举事物的数量不能等于前面所提事物的总和，若相等时用namely或that is.
French politics, too, is packed with misleading old verities. One — derived from the French Revolution — is that “the people” should always be mounting the barricades to thwart the government. .
be packed with
derive from 起源于，来自
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond.
Most utopians don’t even strive to improve people’s lives. They aim for something greater. Russia annexed the Crimea to regain imperial greatness, and no matter that western sanctions then made Russian lives worse.
strive to 努力...，力图...
衍生：aim at sth针对，瞄准
aim to do sth旨在做某事
V. 附加；并吞（merge/ swallow up）
In Germany, by contrast, dreams of greatness have been taboo since 1945. The first postwar chancellor Konrad Adenauer campaigned under the slogan: “No Experiments”. A later successor, Helmut Schmidt, famously advised: “Anyone who has visions should go to the doctor.”
相比之下=in contrast (to)
联想到on the contrary相反地
Merkel got an additional anti-utopian inoculation: she spent her first 35 years in a failed utopia, East Germany. She rarely tells her own story, perhaps for fear of sounding inspirational, but she graduated from Karl Marx University in Leipzig, and later, for her physics PhD, had to write an additional “Marxist-Leninist” thesis. Her topic: the farmer-worker relationship in the farmer-worker state. She got a bad grade for overemphasising the farmers.
for fear of
构词法：over- = 过度...; 超过；越过
例如：over+act = overact 行动过火，夸张表演
over+ride =override 推翻
over+time =overtime 超时的，加班
Britain has shuffled towards this boring pragmatic tradition. Quietly and gradually, the country has dropped “Great” from its name. Even Brexit campaigners aren’t selling imperial dreams; instead, they depict a plucky little England signing trade deals alone. Luckily, the UK has an escape valve that American politics lacks: all British fairytale fantasies can be projected on to the royals. That allows the prime minister to be just a functionary.
shuffled towards 朝着...慢慢地走
n. 阀；[解剖] 瓣膜；真空管；活门
escape valve 可以用来逃脱的阀门=安全阀
n. 功能；[数] 函数；职责；盛大的集会
diary (di[=day 日]+-ary 名词后缀，表示物→ 与每日事情有关的东西→ 日记) n. 日记；日记本
library (libr书+-ary名词后缀，表示场所→ 藏书、放书之处→ 图书馆) n. 图书馆；图书室
ordinary (ordin平常+-ary 形容词后缀, ......的) adj. 普通的；平常的
secretary (secret秘密+-ary 名词后缀，表示从事........人→ 为自己保管秘密文件的人→ 秘书) n. 秘书
But the pragmatists’ greatest achievement goes unseen: averting disaster.
go unseen: be neglected不为所见，被无视
go用作连系动词时，通常表示主语处于某种状态或由某种状态向另一种状态转变，后面多接形容词作其表语，此类形容词往往意义不佳，如：go hungry（挨饿），go thirsty（忍受口渴），go mad（发狂）等。这种“go+形容词”的结构在表达上实用而简明，现就其使用规律和意义归纳如下：
2. 当某人或某物的情况变坏时（一般来说，这种变化是不可逆的或永久性的），也常用“go+形容词”来表示，即由正常情况变为不正常或特殊情况。如go bad可以表示变质。
go critical（达到临界），go solid（变成固体），go negative（变成负值），go nuclear（核力量化），go metric（实行公制）。
Germans understand the sentiment. They experienced complete collapse in 1945, and then again under Merkel’s eyes in East Germany in 1989. She once said she possessed “competence in the early detection of collapsing systems”. When it looked as if the euro would collapse she told Bulgaria’s prime minister Boyko Borisov that the “Maya and other civilisations” had disappeared. In other words, today’s Europe could too. Her heroic task: keep politics boring.
其实我也不知道为什么我就联想到了 n. impotence 无能 adj. Impotent 无力的，无效的
反n. potence 潜能；权力 adj. Potent 强有力的，有权势的
名次变形容词，通常都是-ce 变 -t
例如：possible 反 impossible
practical 反 impractical
pragmatic 反 impragmatic